Glossary of Terms

Aggregate: Any of several hard materials such as crushed rock, sand, gravel, stone, slag, cinders or other inactive materials traditionally used as construction materials.

Asbestos: A naturally occurring fibrous material that has been a popular building material since the 1950s.

Carbon Footprint: This is the total set of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions caused by an organisation, event or product. It is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted.

Decontamination: The reduction or removal of chemical agents.

Dioxins: Refers to a group of chemical compounds that share certain chemical structures and biological characteristics.

Fly Ash: This refers to the fine dust and ash residues that are captured from the exhaust gases arising from the combustion of coal or other fuels, such as biomass, municipal waste, etc.

Gasification: This is a process that converts carbon‐containing materials, such as coal, petroleum, biofuel, household waste or biomass, into mostly carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting the raw material at high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam.

Gasify: This is to convert into gas

Hazardous Waste: This is a waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. Precise definitions of hazardous, non‐hazardous and inert materials are usually defined by national environmental legislation.

Mine Tailings: Mine tailings are large piles of crushed rock that are left over after the majority of metals have been extracted from the mineral rocks that contained them.

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area.

PCBs: A group of man‐made chemicals.

Plasma Torch: A device used to produce a plasma arc, usually made up of concentric metal tubes to supply cooling water and plasma gas and a metal electrode for the arc to attach to.

Radioactive Waste: Is left over from nuclear reactors, nuclear research projects, and nuclear bomb production.

Spent Potliner: A contaminated graphite/ceramics cell waste generated from the production of primary aluminium.

Tundish: A heat insulated, bath‐shaped holding vessel containing molten steel or other metals as part of a casting process, especially where steel is cast continuously into moulds.

Waste Incinerator: Uses thermal treatment to convert waste into ash, fuel gas, and heat.

Waste Recovery: This refers to the reclamation, collection and separation of materials from a waste stream.

Vaporise: This is to change a solid or liquid into a gaseous state.

Zero Waste: This is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource cradle to grave lifecycles and processes so that all products are reused.